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Pope Gelasius I — abolished Lupercalia. Some researchers have theorized that Gelasius I replaced Lupercalia with the celebration of the Purification of the Blessed Virgin Mary and claim a connection to the 14th century's connotations of romantic love, but there is no historical indication that he ever intended such a thing.

Alban Butler in his Lifes of the Principal Saints — claimed without proof that men and women in Lupercalia drew names from a jar to make couples, and that modern Valentine's letters originated from this custom.

In reality, this practice originated in the Middle Ages, with no link to Lupercalia, with men drawing the names of girls at random to couple with them.

This custom was combated by priests, for example by Frances de Sales around , apparently by replacing it with a religious custom of girls drawing the names of apostles from the altar.

However, this religious custom is recorded as soon as the 13th century in the life of Saint Elizabeth of Hungary , so it could have a different origin.

The first recorded association of Valentine's Day with romantic love is believed to be in the Parliament of Fowls by Geoffrey Chaucer , a dream vision portraying a parliament for birds to choose their mates.

Readers have uncritically assumed that Chaucer was referring to February 14 as Valentine's Day. Henry Ansgar Kelly has observed that Chaucer might have had in mind the feast day of St.

Valentine of Genoa, an early bishop of Genoa who died around AD ; it was probably celebrated on 3 May. Jack B.

Oruch notes that the date on which spring begins has changed since Chaucer's time because of the precession of the equinoxes and the introduction of the more accurate Gregorian calendar only in On the Julian calendar in use in Chaucer's time, February 14 would have fallen on the date now called February 23, a time when some birds have started mating and nesting in England.

Chaucer's Parliament of Fowls refers to a supposedly established tradition, but there is no record of such a tradition before Chaucer.

The speculative derivation of sentimental customs from the distant past began with 18th-century antiquaries , notably Alban Butler , the author of Butler's Lives of Saints , and have been perpetuated even by respectable modern scholars.

Most notably, "the idea that Valentine's Day customs perpetuated those of the Roman Lupercalia has been accepted uncritically and repeated, in various forms, up to the present".

Three other authors who made poems about birds mating on St. Chaucer most probably predated all of them; but due to the difficulty of dating medieval works, it is not possible to ascertain which of the four may have influenced the others.

The earliest description of February 14 as an annual celebration of love appears in the Charter of the Court of Love.

The charter, allegedly issued by Charles VI of France at Mantes-la-Jolie in , describes lavish festivities to be attended by several members of the royal court, including a feast, amorous song and poetry competitions, jousting and dancing.

At the time, the duke was being held in the Tower of London following his capture at the Battle of Agincourt , The earliest surviving valentines in English appear to be those in the Paston Letters , written in by Margery Brewes to her future husband John Paston "my right well-beloved Valentine".

Then up he rose, and donn'd his clothes, And dupp'd the chamber-door; Let in the maid, that out a maid Never departed more.

John Donne used the legend of the marriage of the birds as the starting point for his epithalamion celebrating the marriage of Elizabeth , daughter of James I of England , and Frederick V, Elector Palatine , on Valentine's Day:.

All the Ayre is thy Diocese And all the chirping Queristers And other birds ar thy parishioners Thou marryest every yeare The Lyrick Lark, and the graue whispering Doue, The Sparrow that neglects his life for loue, The houshold bird with the redd stomacher Thou makst the Blackbird speede as soone, As doth the Goldfinch, or the Halcyon The Husband Cock lookes out and soone is spedd And meets his wife, which brings her feather-bed.

This day more cheerfully than ever shine. The verse " Roses are red " echoes conventions traceable as far back as Edmund Spenser 's epic The Faerie Queene :.

The honey's sweet, and so are you. And Fortune said it shou'd be you. In , a British publisher issued The Young Man's Valentine Writer , which contained scores of suggested sentimental verses for the young lover unable to compose his own.

Printers had already begun producing a limited number of cards with verses and sketches, called "mechanical valentines.

Fancy Valentines were made with real lace and ribbons, with paper lace introduced in the midth century. A reduction in postal rates following Sir Rowland Hill 's postal reforms with the invention of the postage stamp Penny Black saw the number of Valentines posted increase, with , sent just one year after its invention, and ushered in the less personal but easier practice of mailing Valentines.

In the United States, the first mass-produced Valentines of embossed paper lace were produced and sold shortly after by Esther Howland — of Worcester, Massachusetts.

Harrison's Confessions : "I burst in with my explanations: 'The valentine I know nothing about. Since the 19th century, handwritten notes have given way to mass-produced greeting cards.

In , the British chocolate company Cadbury created Fancy Boxes — a decorated box of chocolates — in the shape of a heart for Valentine's Day.

The U. Greeting Card Association estimates that approximately million valentines are sent each year in the US. Half of those valentines are given to family members other than husband or wife, usually to children.

The rise of Internet popularity at the turn of the millennium is creating new traditions. Millions of people use, every year, digital means of creating and sending Valentine's Day greeting messages such as e-cards , love coupons or printable greeting cards.

An estimated 15 million e-valentines were sent in In the modern era, liturgically, the Anglican Church has a service for St.

Valentine's Day the Feast of St. Valentine , which includes the optional rite of the renewal of marriage vows.

In the later 20th and early 21st centuries, these customs spread to other countries, like those of Hallowe'en , or than aspects of Christmas , such as Santa Claus.

It is also common to see people perform "acts of appreciation" for their friends. In Brazil , the Dia dos Namorados lit. Couples exchange gifts, chocolates, cards, and flower bouquets.

The February 14 Valentine's Day is not celebrated at all because it usually falls too little before or too little after the Brazilian Carnival [92] — that can fall anywhere from early February to early March and lasts almost a week.

Because of the absence of Valentine's Day and due to the celebrations of the Carnivals, Brazil was recommended by U.

In the United States, about million Valentine's Day cards are sent each year, not including the hundreds of millions of cards school children exchange.

In the Afghan tradition, love is often expressed through poetry. Some new generation budding poets like Ramin Mazhar, Mahtab Sahel are expressing themselves through poetry using Valentine's Day expressing concerns on any likelihood of erosion of freedoms.

In their political comment they defy fear by saying ' I kiss you amid the Taliban' [98]. The "Chinese Valentine's Day" is the Qixi Festival , celebrated on the seventh day of the seventh month of the lunar calendar.

It commemorates a day on which a legendary cowherder and weaving maid are allowed to be together. According to the legend, the Cowherd star and the Weaver Maid star are normally separated by the Milky Way silvery river but are allowed to meet by crossing it on the 7th day of the 7th month of the Chinese calendar.

In recent years, celebrating White Day has also become fashionable among some young people. In India , in antiquity, there was a tradition of adoring Kamadeva , the lord of love; exemplificated by the erotic carvings in the Khajuraho Group of Monuments and by the writing of the Kamasutra.

Valentine's Day celebrations did not catch on in India until around It was spread due to the programs in commercial TV channels, such as MTV , dedicated radio programs, and love letter competitions, in addition to an economical liberalization that allowed the explosion of the valentine card industry.

In modern times, Hindu and Islamic [] traditionalists have considered the holiday to be cultural contamination from the West, a result of globalization in India.

Valentine's Day has been strongly criticized from a postcolonial perspective by intellectuals from the Indian left.

The holiday is regarded as a front for "Western imperialism", " neocolonialism ", and "the exploitation of working classes through commercialism by multinational corporations ".

They also criticize mainstream media attacks on Indians opposed to Valentine's Day as a form of demonization that is designed and derived to further the Valentine's Day agenda.

Our activists will beat them up". People of Iran in cities have gotten familiar with Valentine's Day for about one decade ago and during this short time, it has become popular among the youth and also some elders.

In the s, celebration of Valentine's Day became common in wealthy families and then spread among other levels of society.

In the first part of the 21st century, the celebration of Valentine's Day in Iran has been harshly criticized by Islamic teachers who see the celebrations as opposed to Islamic culture.

In , the Iranian printing works owners' union issued a directive banning the printing and distribution of any goods promoting the holiday, including cards , gifts, and teddy bears.

Outlets that violate this will be legally dealt with", the union warned. In , local media reported that police had informed coffee shops and ice cream parlours in Tehran that they would be guilty of committing a crime if they encouraged "decadent Western culture through Valentine's Day rituals".

In Iran, the Sepandarmazgan , or Esfandegan, is a festival where people express love towards their mothers and wives, and it is also a celebration of earth in ancient Persian culture.

It has been progressively forgotten in favor of the Western celebration of Valentine's Day. The Association of Iran's Cultural and Natural Phenomena has been trying since to make Sepandarmazgan a national holiday on February 17, in order to replace the Western holiday.

It is celebrated on the 15th day of the month of Av usually in late August. In ancient times girls would wear white dresses and dance in the vineyards, where the boys would be waiting for them Mishna Taanith end of Chapter 4.

Today, Tu B'Av is celebrated as a second holiday of love by secular people along with Valentine's Day , and it shares many of the customs associated with Saint Valentine's Day in western societies.

In modern Israeli culture Tu B'Av is a popular day to proclaim love, propose marriage, and give gifts like cards or flowers.

In Japan , Morozoff Ltd. Later, in , it began promoting the giving of heart-shaped chocolates; other Japanese confectionery companies followed suit thereafter.

In , the Isetan department store ran a "Valentine sale". Further campaigns during the s popularized the custom. The custom that only women give chocolates to men may have originated from the translation error of a chocolate-company executive during the initial campaigns.

Unlike western countries, gifts such as greeting cards, [] candies, flowers , or dinner dates [] are uncommon, and most of the gifts-related activity is about giving the right amount of chocolate to each person.

Many women feel obliged to give chocolates to all male co-workers, except when the day falls on a Sunday, a holiday. In the s, the Japanese National Confectionery Industry Association launched a successful campaign to make March 14 a "reply day", where men are expected to return the favour to those who gave them chocolates on Valentine's Day, calling it White Day for the color of the chocolates being offered.

A previous failed attempt to popularize this celebration had been done by a marshmallow manufacturer who wanted men to return marshmallows to women.

Saint Valentine is the patron saint for a large part of the Lebanese population. Couples take the opportunity of Valentine's feast day to exchange sweet words and gifts as proof of love.

Such gifts typically include boxes of chocolates, cupcakes, and red roses, which are considered the emblem of sacrifice and passion.

Lebanese people celebrate Valentine's Day in a different way in every city. In Beirut , men take women out to dine and may buy them a gift.

Many women are asked to marry on that day. In Sidon , Valentine's Day is celebrated with the whole family — it is more about family love than a couple's love.

Islamic officials in West Malaysia warned Muslims against celebrating Valentine's Day, linking it with vice activities.

Deputy Prime Minister Muhyiddin Yassin said the celebration of romantic love was "not suitable" for Muslims.

Wan Mohamad Sheikh Abdul Aziz, head of the Malaysian Islamic Development Department Jakim , which oversees the country's Islamic policies said that a fatwa ruling issued by the country's top clerics in noted that the day 'is associated with elements of Christianity,' and 'we just cannot get involved with other religions' worshipping rituals.

Activities include conducting raids in hotels to stop young couples from having unlawful sex and distributing leaflets to Muslim university students warning them against the day.

On Valentine's Day , West Malaysian religious authorities arrested more than Muslim couples concerning the celebration ban. Some of them would be charged in the Shariah Court for defying the department's ban against the celebration of Valentine's Day.

In East Malaysia , the celebration are much more tolerated among young Muslim couples although some Islamic officials and Muslim activists from the West side have told younger generations to refrain from such celebration by organising da'wah and tried to spread their ban into the East.

The concept of Valentine's Day was introduced into Pakistan during the late s with special TV and radio programs. The Jamaat-e-Islami political party has called for the banning of Valentine's Day celebration.

The case is the same with card publishers. In , local governing body of Peshwar officially banned the celebration of Valentine's Day in the city.

The ban was also implemented in other cities such as Kohat by the local governments. It is usually marked by a steep increase in the price of flowers, particularly red roses.

In Saudi Arabia , in and , religious police banned the sale of all Valentine's Day items, telling shop workers to remove any red items, because the day is considered a Christian holiday.

However, in and , after a fatwa was widely circulated, the religious police did not prevent Muslims from celebrating the day. In South Korea , women give chocolate to men on February 14, and men give non-chocolate candy to women on March 14 White Day.

The 14th of every month marks a love-related day in Korea, although most of them are obscure.

However, the situation is the reverse of Japan's. Men give gifts to women on Valentine's Day, and women return them on White Day.

Dwynwen's Day on January 25 instead of or as well as Valentine's Day. The day commemorates St Dwynwen , the Welsh patron saint of love.

Valentine in Whitefriar Street Carmelite Church in Dublin, which is said to house relics of Saint Valentine of Rome; they pray at the shrine in hope of finding romance.

As the name indicates, this day is more about remembering friends, not significant others. In Estonia, Valentine's Day is called sõbrapäev , which has the same meaning.

In France, a traditionally Catholic country, Valentine's Day is known simply as " Saint Valentin ", and is celebrated in much the same way as other western countries.

The village gets dressed in its 19th-century costume and put on the program with over people. In the Eastern Orthodox church there is another Saint who protects people who are in love, Hyacinth of Caesarea feast day July 3 , but this was not widely known until the late s [] In contemporary Greece, Valentine's Day is generally celebrated as in the common Western tradition.

In recent years, Romania has also started celebrating Valentine's Day. In order to counter the perceived denaturation of national culture, Dragobete , a spring festival celebrated in parts of Southern Romania, has been rekindled after having been ignored during the Communist years as the traditional Romanian holiday for lovers.

The holiday is named after a character from Romanian folklore who was supposed to be the son of Baba Dochia.

In Denmark and Norway , February 14 is known as Valentinsdag , and it is celebrated in much the same manner as in the United Kingdom.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the romantic holiday and liturgical celebration. For other uses, see Valentine's Day disambiguation.

Valentine's Day" redirects here. For the Bing Crosby album, see St. Valentine's Day album. Holiday observed on February Types of love.

Social views. Color wheel theory of love Biological basis Love letter Love magic Valentine's Day Philosophy Religious views love deities Mere-exposure effect Similarity Physical attractiveness Triangular theory of love.

Main article: Saint Valentine. Valentines day. Main article: Dia dos Namorados. See also: The Cowherd and the Weaver Girl.

Main article: Valentine's Day in India. Main article: Opposition to Valentine's day in Iran. Main article: Valentine's Day in Pakistan. Christianity portal Holidays portal.

Valentine's Day with Lupercalia to expel the pagan rituals. The replacement of Lupercalia with Saint Valentine's celebration was suggested by researchers Kellog and Cox.

Ansgar says "It is hardly credible, then, that Pope Gelasius could have introduced the feast of the Purification to counteract the Lupercalia, and in fact the historical records of his pontificate give no hint of such an action.

This feast is celebrated 40 days after the Nativity. In Jerusalem the Nativity was celebrated on January 6, and this feast in February But, in the West and even in Eastern places such as Antioch and Alexandria, Nativity was celebrated on December 25, and this Purification was not celebrated.

When this feast was introduced to Rome, it was directly placed in February 2. Around that time, Jerusalem adopted the Nativity date of December 25 and moved the Purification to February 2.

October 23, Dictionary of Christianity. Christians in the Twenty-First Century. The association between Valentine and lovers derives from a legend associated with Valentine of Rome.

Emperor Claudius II wanted to recruit soldiers for the Roman army, and prohibited young men from marrying, in case homesickness for wives, homes and families should impair their military prowess.

He also opposed the Christian faith, encouraging its persecution. Valentine, a physician priest, offered help to Christians whose lives were in peril and, although celibate himself, performed secret marriage rites for young men and women, defying the emperor's decree.

He was discovered and imprisoned. A Litany of Saints. The Encyclopedia of Saints. Infobase Publishing. Butler's Lives of the saints.

Encyclopaedia of Great Festivals. Valentine's Day, —" Winterthur Portfolio Pitt Rivers Museum. University of Oxford.

Archived from the original on July 19, Retrieved June 20, Church of England Anglican Communion. Archived from the original on June 29, Retrieved October 27, February 14 Valentine, Martyr at Rome, c.

August 1, Fortress Press. Archived from the original on January 1, February 14, Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America. Archived from the original on August 14, Retrieved February 12, Archived from the original on February 5, Sacred Travels.

Adams Media. Archived from the original on March 3, Archived from the original on January 16, Archived from the original on October 17, Cooper, Dictionary of Christianity , , Routledge.

Valentine, Chaucer, and Spring in February ", Speculum , 56 : — Oruch's survey of the literature finds no association between Valentine and romance prior to Chaucer.

He concludes that Chaucer is likely to be "the original mythmaker in this instance. Valentine, laying his hand upon her eyes, said in prayer, "O Thou who art the true Light, give light to this Thy servant.

Asterius and his wife, falling at the feet of Valentine, prayed that they might be admitted into the Christian fellowship; whereupon St.

Valentine commanded them to break their idols, to fast for three days, to forgive their enemies, and to be baptized.

Asterius and his wife did all the saint told them to do, and Valentine baptized them and all their household, to the number of forty-six in all.

Ansgar was unable to corroborate this. Valentine beheaded — Feb 14, ". Archived from the original on March 16, Retrieved April 9, When Valentine's actions were discovered, Claudius ordered that he be put to death.

Valentine was arrested and dragged before the Prefect of Rome, who condemned him to be beaten to death with clubs and to have his head cut off.

The sentence was carried out on February 14, on or about the year Legend also has it that while in jail, St.

Valentine left a farewell note for the jailer's daughter, who had become his friend, and signed it "From Your Valentine. Voices of the Martyrs.

Bridge Logos Foundation. XL, No. Chapter "The First Valentine", p. Archived from the original on September 14, Hesse January 1, Jewelrymaking Through History: An Encyclopedia.

Greenwood Publishing Group. Archived from the original on September 15, It appears as the birthstone from February probably due to its association with Saint Valentine; therefore, amethyst has often been worn to attract love.

Archived from the original on March 4, Archived from the original on June 28, Retrieved February 3, Gorenjski glas in Slovenian.

Archived from the original on January 18, February 9, Masaryk University Press. America's Favorite Holidays: Candid Histories.

University of California Press. There is no indication in suppressing the Lupercalia, Gelasius put anything else in its place.

Much later, in the s, a Cardinal Baronius speculated that Gelasius converted the Lupercalia into the Feast of the Purification of the Virgin or Candlemas , changing one purification ceremony into another, and many noted authors have repeated this claim.

Recent scholarship has refuted Baronius's assertion The letter by Gelasius to Andromachus criticizing the Lupercalia contains no reference to Valentine, or Valentine's Day, or any replacement observance.

Oruch, "St. Valentine, Chaucer, and Spring in February" Speculum UCLA Spotlight. Archived from the original on April 3, Chapter 6 The Genoese St.

Valentine, p. Independent Online. Many people celebrate their love for their partner by sending cards or letters, giving gifts or flowers and arranging meals in restaurants or romantic nights in hotels.

People who would like to have a romantic relationship with somebody may use the occasion to make this known, often anonymously.

Valentine's cards are often decorated with images of hearts, red roses or Cupid. Common Valentine's Day gifts are flowers chocolates, candy, lingerie and champagne or sparkling wine.

However, some people use the occasion to present lavish gifts, such as jewelry. Many restaurants and hotels have special offers at this time.

These can include romantic meals or weekend breaks. Government offices, stores, schools and other organizations are open as usual. Public transit systems run on their regular schedule.

Restaurants may be busier than usual as many people go out for an evening with their spouse or partner. Valentine's Day is also a very popular date for weddings.

There are a number of Saints called Valentine who are honored on February The day became associated with romantic love in the Middle Ages in England.

This may have followed on from the Pagan fertility festivals that were held all over Europe as the winter came to an end.

Traditionally, lovers exchanged hand written notes. Commercial cards became available in the mid nineteenth century.

The most common Valentine's Day symbols are the heart, particularly in reds and pinks, and pictures or models of Cupid. Cupid is usually portrayed as a small winged figure with a bow and arrow.

In mythology, he uses his arrow to strike the hearts of people. People who have fallen in love are sometimes said to be 'struck by Cupid's arrow.

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